Most victims were white males. Davey, in Comprehensive Clinical Psychology, 1998 (iv) Aversion therapy. This experiment was unethicalbecause it was cruel and afflicted painful testing on animals. These include gender neutral bathrooms, Gay parades and the stance many companies are making to employ members of the LGBT community. It is unknown exactly how many of the soldiers suffered these forced sex-changes, though estimates say there were as many as 900. One cannot be diagnosed with homosexuality because it is not a mental disorder but a sexual preference and something that pertains to the emotional character. Convention (III) relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War, Top 10 Unethical Psychological Experiments. Our free knowledge base makes your writing task easier. Feel free to use our essay and paper samples. The Aversion Project is seen as one of the most unethical psychology practices in North America An estimated 900 males and female soldiers, were tested on and tortured. Cells that project from the lateral amygdala to the central amygdala allow for the initiation of an emotional response if a stimulus is deemed threatening. As Freud boldly points out; persecution of homosexuality is a crime and an injustice. Home / Essay Samples / Social Issues / Types of Human Rights / The Aversion Project Case Study: How Human Dignity And Human Rights Were Denied Resulting In An Unethical Outcome. The last attempt at formulating ideas to cure homosexuality included sex changes. Just insert your email and this sample will be sent to you. Animals are living being too and its immoral because its a … Request writing assistance from a top writer in the field! We will occasionally send you account related emails. Get inspiration for your writing task, explore essay structures and figure out a title and outline for your paper. We are glad that you like it, but you cannot copy from our website. The exact whereabouts of the project occurred at the Voortrekkerhoogte Military Hospital, ward 22, situated in Pretoria. PMID: 11584769 No abstract available. During the 1970s and 1980s, South African’s apartheid army gave homosexual soldiers forced sex-changes among other tortuousmethods of rooting-out homosexuality. There are differences displayed from one person to another and it is crucial to acknowledge the rights every human, African and South African possesses. Homosexuality was decriminalised for men aged 21 and over on 27th July 1967. The Aversion Project happened during the years of Apartheid in South Africa. The army psychiatrists shows no empathy or signs of treating the homosexual soldiers like human during the experiment. Various homosexual individuals – who were targets of the conversion therapy – along with the families and friends of these i… The Aversion Project was a medical torture program in South Africa led by Dr. Aubrey Levin during apartheid. It was understood that the targets of this project were homosexual personnel from military troops, whereby some were asked to join and others were told to do so. In grasping this, unethical behaviour may be prevented in the way we treat others that may be governed by our beliefs. Cognitive Control. Many of these victims were between the age of 16 & 24 years old. https://luka-magnotta-magnotta-luka.blogspot.com/.../aversion-project.html Where does South Africa stand today? When sexual stimuli was observed, the voltage was increased. Electric aversion therapy eliminated hair pulling almost immediately and the results were maintained on follow-up, with the exception of a minor relapse at a time of stress. The profound message carried through this case study points towards understanding the rights of every human being. An as-yet unpublished report, called the Aversion Project, commissioned by gay rights groups and South Africa's medical research council, details the extent of … Looking at the unique state of South Africa even within Africa during the apartheid era, the experiment occurred during a period of traditional religion being valued as well as racial segregation amongst citizens. It was here that Levin practised what has come to be known as The Aversion Project, where he subjected White gay and lesbian individuals from … Homosexuality is assuredly no advantage, but it is nothing to be ashamed of, no vice, no degradation, it cannot be classified as an illness; we consider it to be a variation of the sexual function, produced by a certain arrest of the sexual development. It is clear that homosexuality is a difficult concept as it deviates from the norm and culture of what is seen as “right”. Therefore, first and foremost because they are human there is a sense of dignity and respect that is owed to them, and there was a huge lack of dignity and respect showed to the personnel from the beginning of The Aversion Project to the end of the degrading process of persecution undergone by the various victims. Gambling 6. Thousands of homosexuals were imprisoned at the Voortrekkerhoogte military hospital near Pretoria. This type of therapy proved to be immensely brutal and harsh. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. The Aversion Project of the 1970s and 1980s South Africa’s apartheid army forced white lesbian and gay soldiers to undergo ‘sex-change’ operations in the 1970′s and the 1980′s, and submitted many to chemical castration, electric shock, and other unethical medical experiments. To get a custom and plagiarism-free essay This is where the conditioning paradigm is used to condition an aversive response to a formally attractive stimulus. This led on to the link between a homophobic nature and playing a part in rights violation. Smoking 5. The subjects were also given huge supplements of hormones which ultimately produced a hormonal imbalance and induced chemical castration. In South Africa, which is also inclusive of Africa, homosexuals are not easily accepted and it is often seen as morally incorrect. Usually, people say that the former has a higher value to them than the latter. There were approximately 900 men and women who underwent the surgery enforced upon the candidates. In terms of an illness alluding to a mental illness, it cannot be classified in such a way either. The Oxford dictionary defines homosexuality as “a person who is sexually attracted to people of the same sex”. Alcoholism 4. Human rights of the LGBT (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender) community have been neglected for generations. Breaking down the fundamental roots of how the project was made possible is fundamental in understanding how it led to human rights being violated of the personnel involved. Suspected homosexuals would be taken to military psychiatric outposts, where they would be experimented on using shock therapy, hormone treatment, and if all else failed, a forced sex-change. It is not right that a man should go with another man, or a woman with another woman. The Psychology of Loss Aversion Economists and psychologists have long been aware that decision makers tend to place greater weight on the economic … Opportunity Managing for Projects” and PMI’s “A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge” as excellent references to methods of responding to risk that can empower mangers to gain more control over risk (Project Management Institute, 2003). Consider, for instance, the subjective value of avoiding a loss of $10 compared with gaining $10. Roger and Peter are both gay and grew up in the 1960s. Author G J Venter. Change ). These are the sources and citations used to research ethics in psychology. The Relationship Between The British Empire And Universal Human Rights Essay, Human Rights Violation In The Philippines Essay, Government Initiated Human Rights Buster Essay, Overcome The Barriers After Trafficking Experience Essay, Overview Of The Most Significant Policies Regarding The Human Right Essay, Overview Of People’s Association In Singapore Essay, Surveillance – Protection Versus Human Rights Essay. The study was unethical because it does not treat the soldiers equally as human and does not respect their sexuality. This will be explored, particularly focusing on homosexuals, with the Aversion Project that happened in South Africa between the 1980s and 1970s. Aversion therapy can be used to treat a number of problematic behaviors including the following:2 1. Human rights of the LGBT (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender) community have been neglected for generations. (1) The Aversion Project was a medical torture program during apartheid led by Dr. Aubrey Levin. In such cases, people may wear an elastic band arou… The Aversion Project--sex change operations in the SADF . Australian Psychological Society … The intentional purpose of making homosexuals feel ashamed based on individual external values and beliefs is atrocious. Privacy statement. In other words, the value people place on avoiding a certain loss is higher than the value of acquiring a gain of equal size. ( Log Out /  Behavioral Psychology 16.01 (1988): 57. In psychology, projection refers to placing your own negative traits or unwanted emotions onto others, usually without reason. This stems from the recognition that there is a sense of human dignity and respect associated with every human, but when there is a lack of this element it can be clearly outlined as a violation. The Aversion Project is unethical due to several reasons: it caused physical and mental harm to the participants, it was forced conducted therefore the experiment had no consent, and the participants cannot withdraw when they want to. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. Majority of the "participants" of the test were drafted white males and females between 16-24 years of age. After reading the Course Companion E-text, my judgement still stands. Although this case study is a matter of the past, one can evaluate where South Africa stands today in terms of the rights of the LGBT community. It’s quick and easy! The therapy used treated the patients in an inhumane manner which further strays from the rights of individuals which originates from the right to life, liberty and security. It is a great injustice to persecute homosexuality as a crime — and a cruelty too. It is important to understand that the studies of human behavior towards risk and This becomes equitable to be classified as unethical behaviour. It is believed to be against African culture and of a sinful and shameful nature. In-text: (Australian Psychological Society Code of Ethics, 2007) Your Bibliography: 2007. Such a preference seems strik… Web. ( Log Out /  Cape Town: Simply Said and Done on behalf of Gay and Lesbian Archives Health and Human Rights Project, Medical Research Council, National Coalition for Gay and Lesbian Equality, 1999. ‘Aversion Therapy In The Treatment Of Trichotillomania: A Case Study’. The results of such atrocious violations of the soldiers’ human rights had detrimental effects on their mental and physical health and in the majority of cases resulted in suicide. It further exposes how ignoring rights can result in a lack of dignity showed, proving in themselves to be one of an unethical degree. The Aversion Project is a crime against humanity disguised as a medical/scientific project. click here. It was understood that this ward was designed specifically for patients with mental and psychological disorders, hence the experiment began wherein homosexuality was seen as a “disease” and the aim of the experiment had was to find a cure. The learned helplessnessexperiment of 1965 conducted by psychologist Martin Seligman is considered unethical. ( Log Out /  The unfortunate ending to this project was the inhumane conditions that these homosexuals were left in due to the project being abandoned. Australian Psychological Society Code of Ethics 2007 - Victoria, Australia. Risk aversion is a preference for a sure outcome over a gamble with higher or equal expected value. The stance South Africa takes today as a nation is to learn from the past to work together for a new purpose. 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